The early months of 2020 mark the outbreak of Corona Virus (also called Covid 19 as a scientific name) in Wuhan, China. Four other countries- US, Japan, Germany, and Vietnam are also affected by person-to-person contact and not by direct travel to China. This news has created fear in the whole world, due to the consequences of the disease seen in China which shows the increasing number of deaths of infected people daily. To create awareness of people regarding the disease, its consequences, prevention, and possible cure. To control the outbreak scientist and researchers have to work on the factors that cause this pandemic. it can be controlled effectively through vaccination.IT will be possible if more research is done through clinical trials on humans.
Different studies were carried out in the previous years regarding Corona Virus, but these studies didn’t include the outbreaks and the areas for understanding and prevention of disease. The topics mostly included host jumping of the viral genome and the genomic sequencing and makeup of the virus. Mostly animals like bats were taken as controls in that research.
Some of the further topics for awareness include:
Corona Virus- Understanding the Microbiology:
Research Question: What is the origin of Corona Virus RNA? Is it human created through artificial means or Naturally created?
There are many conspiracy theories regarding the origin and spread of Covid-19 and we should determine the origin of this virus.USA already accused China of spreading this Virus and they are now using political pressure to blame china. As a medical students, researchers should conduct studies and trial to determine the fact instead of blame-game of accusing others.
Corona Virus is a family of viruses which includes sub-families coronavirinae and torovirinae, in the order Nidovirales. Coronavirus is Single stranded positive sense RNA virus that are enveloped and have helical nucleocapsids. These are pleomorphic, 80-160nm in diameter. Coronavirinae subfamily is further divided into Alphacorona virus, Betacoronavirus, Deltavirus and Gama coronavirus while torovirinae subfamily includes, Torovirus and Bifinivirus. The epidemic which has spread nowadays is Beta Coronavirus.
Understanding the classification and microbiological structure of the virus is important for diagnosing and finding out possible treatment of the disease.
Understanding the replication of Coronavirus within Cell:
Research Question: How Corona Virus is Replicated within the cell?
When the virus enters into the human body it undergoes uncoating and its RNA strand undergoes translation, forming a replicate complex by transcription and replication. There is the formation of different amino acids and it undergoes assembly within the endoplasmic reticulum. It moves to the Golgi complex which packs the genome into the membrane so that it can be exocytosed. That’s how the virus increases in number.
Understanding the replication of Coronavirus is important to know about the spread of the disease and make possible vaccines for prevention.
Corona virus- Its reservoir:
Research Question: What is the effect of Corona Virus infections on Human and animals? Similarities and difference in their impact on both species?
Coronavirus is a zoonotic infection (infection that is usually spread by animals). The main reservoir for infection is pigs, domestic and wild birds, bats, cats, dogs, camels and bats. For some reasons this virus (beta-corona virus) mutates itself by progressive loss of haemagglutinin- Esterase Lectin Activity and adapts into human.
The disease can be controlled by knowing and controlling the reservoir of Corona virus.
Corona Virus Transmission:
Research Question: Is Corona virus Air borne in nature?
According to the recent studies of the doctors groups the transmission of this virus is airborne which can affect the people in groups as virus particles can travel in air for few minutes impacting other lives.As a medical students you can further study this concept by carrying clinical trials or use already collected data to approve or reject the hypothesis.
Also read this story at CNN about the immunity of covid-19.
Transmission of Corona Virus:
Research Question: How is Corona Virus transmitted from Human to human or Animal to human?
Corona virus is transmitted to those people who are in direct contact with animals. The first cases are of less severity, but as the virus is transmitted further, it mutates further and become severe in the other cases. This virus is spread from person-to-person , by coughing, sneezing, touching and fecal contamination.
The disease can be better controlled by knowing aNd controlling the mode of transmission of Corona Virus.
Signs and Symptoms of Corona- Virus:
Research Question: What are specific signs and Symptoms of Corona Virus?
The earliest Symptom of this fatal disease is fever, which can be mild or may range from 100.4 F to even higher in later stages, associated with mild body aches. After 2-7 days an infected person develops a dry cough with mild breathing difficulties just like the common cold. Afterward, there are GIT disturbances including diarrhea. The symptoms may become severe and cause chest pains, rapid heartbeat, pneumonia, kidney failure, and death can occur. Chest Radiographs may show bilateral lung infiltrates.
Having knowledge about the signs and symptoms of covid-19 help people to get themselves screened if they feel the same symptoms. It helps in early diagnosis and preventing transmission.
More vulnerable to Corona virus- Men or Women:
- Who is more vulnerable to coronavirus in both genders? Are they related to some age of males/females? Elder or Younger? What disease history could make them more vulnerable?
- What BMI is high at risk? Studies found that BMI 40 or above is at higher risk. More trials for each country’s data should be conducted to approve or disapprove this.
- Is there any risk of Coronavirus in Pregnant women? Are they at high, moderate, or low risk?
There’s no evidence that pregnant women are more likely to get seriously ill from coronavirus. In some studies, they are also included in the list of moderate risk and that is the reason you should do more study from your country data or your nearby hospital data to study the relationship between pregnant women and Covid-19.
When it comes to infection with coronavirus, men are more prone to infection as compared to women. Statistical information has shown that men have weaker immune systems than female. Immune differences in gender start from the womb, female girls are more likely to reach their first birthday than male babies.
Males have a weaker immune system so, they are more prone to get infections, males should be more conscious about having Corona Virus.
According to one study, People over the age of 70 are considered vulnerable, even if they do not have an underlying health condition. This also applies to those who are pregnant.
Diagnostic Testing for Corona- Virus:
Research Question: Which Diagnostic Test is effective and valid for Corona Virus patients?
Diagnostic testing for Coronavirus is done only at CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention). It includes taking the specimen from infected or suspected persons under proper infection control measures and preserving the specimen in a controlled fixed temperature for each specimen. The specimen can be taken from the upper respiratory tract (Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab) and lower respiratory tracts (usual sputum if productive cough).
People should get themselves screened for coronavirus if they have flu-like symptoms increasing in intensity, for early diagnosis and treatment.
Prevention for spread of Corona Virus:
Research Question: What measures help to prevent or slow the spread of Corona Virus?
Prevention is better than cure. Coronavirus spreads through the air and touches so, the spread can be prevented by avoiding close contact with sick people. Using a face mask when out. Stay at home when sick. Wash your hands and use gloves when opening the door locks. Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. Cook food thoroughly. Contact the doctor if you have flu symptoms.
Corona Virus is prevented by taking care of personal hygiene and avoiding contact with infected people.
Vaccination for Corona Virus:
Research Question: What could be the vaccine for Coronavirus?
There is no vaccine currently available for the prevention of coronavirus. Although scientist is trying their best to make a vaccine it is difficult because of the continuous mutation of the virus. Right now, Weiner and his colleagues are working on a vaccine that will work by teaching the human immune system to recognize any virus and neutralize it. It is called a DNA vaccine.
There is no vaccine currently available for coronavirus, discovering a possible vaccine for the disease is the only best possible way of preventing Corona Virus.
Treatment of Corona Virus:
Research Question: What is the effective treatment for Corona Virus patients?
There is no vaccine currently available for the prevention of coronavirus. Coronavirus is treated symptomatically, and drugs used for the common cold are given. Antipyeritics, and anti-virals with plenty of fluids are given for patients, for severe cases, treatment to preserve the vital organs is also given. Patients are put in an isolated department to prevent the spread.
Corona Virus is treated symptomatically and by giving plenty of fluids. There is no definitive treatment available till the vaccination is ready by the scientists in a year or two.
Research Limitations for Covid-19 Pandemic Topics:
All this research can better take place if we do experimental study and proper data collection from the first infected person to all those infected along with the pieces of information taken from the doctors about an increase in severity of disease and possible outcomes and asking about the treatment option which they have seen, resulting in the betterment of their patients.
Lack of access to the patients and facilities to do the experimental study is also a great problem. Although Western countries already have started an experimental study on humans still there is no authentic success to date and it can take months to make vaccination ready for covid 19 patients.
What we can help as an Academic Writer and Researchers?
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