The early months of 2020 marks the outbreak of Corona Virus (also called Covid 19 as scientific name) in Wuhan, China. Four other countries- US, Japan, Germany and Vietnam are also affected by person-to-person contact and not by direct travel to China. This news has created fear in the whole world, due to the consequences of the disease seen in China which shows the increasing number of deaths of infected people daily. To create the awareness of people regarding the disease, its consequences, prevention and possible cure. To control the outbreak scientist and researchers have to work on the factors that cause this pandemic.it can be controlled effectively through vaccination.IT will be possible if more research is done through clinical trials on humans.
Different studies were carried out in the previous years regarding Corona Virus, but these studies didn’t include the outbreaks and the areas for understanding and prevention of disease. The topics mostly included host jumping of viral genome and the genomic sequencing and make up of the virus. Mostly animals like bats were taken as controls in that research.
Some of the further topics for awareness includes:
Corona Virus- Understanding the Microbiology:
Research Question: What is the origin of Corona Virus RNA?
Corona Virus is a family of virus which includes sub-families coronavirinae and torovirinae, in the order Nidovirales. Coronavirus are Single stranded positive sense RNA virus which are enveloped and have helical nucleocapsid. These are pleomorphic, 80-160nm in diameter. Coronavirinae subfamily is further divided into Alphacorona virus, Betacoronavirus, Deltavirus and Gama coronavirus while torovirinae subfamily includes, Torovirus and Bifinivirus. The epidemic which has spread nowadays is Beta Corona virus.
Understanding the classification and microbiological structure of the virus is important for diagnosing and finding out possible treatment of the disease.
Understanding the replication of Coronavirus within Cell:
Research Question: How Corona Virus is Replicated within the cell?
When the virus enters into human body it undergoes uncoating and its RNA strand undergo translation, forms replicase complex by transcription and replication. There is formation of different amino acids and it undergo assembly within endoplasmic reticulum. It moves to Golgi complex which packs the genome into membrane so that is can be exocytosed. That’s how the virus increases in number.
Understanding the replication of Corona virus is important to know about the spread of the disease and making possible vaccines for prevention.
Coronavirus- Its reservoir:
Research Question: What is the effect of Corona Virus infections on Human and animals? Similarities and difference in their impact on both species?
Coronavirus is a zoonotic infection (infection that is usually spread by animals). The main reservoir for infection is pigs, domestic and wild birds, bats, cats, dogs, camels and bats. For some reasons this virus (beta-corona virus) mutates itself by progressive loss of haemagglutinin- Esterase Lectin Activity and adapts into human.
The disease can be controlled by knowing and controlling the reservoir of Corona virus.
Transmission of Corona Virus:
Research Question: How is Corona Virus transmitted from Human to human or Animal to human?
Corona virus is transmitted to those people who are in direct contact with animals. The first cases are of less severity, but as the virus is transmitted further, it mutates further and become severe in the other cases. This virus is spread from person-to-person , by coughing, sneezing, touching and fecal contamination.
The disease can be better controlled by knowing aNd controlling the mode of transmission of Corona Virus.
Signs and Symptoms of Corona- Virus:
Research Question: What are specific signs and Symptoms of Corona Virus?
The earliest Symptom of this fatal disease is fever, which can be mild or may range from 100.4 F to even higher in later stages, associated with mild body aches. After 2-7 days an infected person develops dry cough with mild breathing difficulties just like common cold. Afterwards there is GIT disturbances including diarrhoea. The symptoms may become severe and cause chest pains, rapid heartbeat, pneumonia, kidney failure and death can occur. Chest Radiographs may show bilateral lung infiltrates.
Having knowledge about signs and symptoms help people to get themselves screened if they feel the same symptoms. It helps in early diagnosis and preventing transmission.
More vulnerable to Corona virus- Men or Women:
Research Question: Who is more vulnerable to corona virus in both genders? Are they related to some age of male/females?
When it comes to infection with coronavirus, men are more prone to infection as compared to women. The statistical information has shown that men have weaker immune system than female. Immune differences in gender start from womb, female girls are more likely to reach their first birthday than male babies.
Males have weaker immune system so, they are more prone to get infections, males should be more conscious about having Corona Virus.
Diagnostic Testing for Corona- Virus:
Research Question: Which Diagnostic Test is effective and valid for Corona Virus patient?
Diagnostic testing for Corona virus is done only at CDC (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention). It includes taking the specimen from infected or suspected person under proper infection control measures and preserving specimen in controlled fixed temperature for each specimen. Specimen can be taken from upper respiratory tract (Nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swab) and lower respiratory tracts (usually sputum if productive cough).
People should get themselves screened for coronavirus if they have flu like symptoms increasing in intensity, for early diagnosis and treatment.
Prevention for spread of Corona Virus:
Research Question: What measures help to prevent or slow the spread of Corona Virus?
Prevention is better than cure. Corona virus spreads through air and touch so, the spread can be prevented by avoiding close contact with the sick people. Using face mask when out. Stay at home when sick. Wash your hands and use gloves when opening the door locks. Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze. Cook food thoroughly. Contact doctor if you have flu symptoms.
Corona Virus is prevented by taking care of personal hygiene and avoiding contact with infected people.
Vaccination for Corona Virus:
Research Question: What could be the vaccine for Corona virus?
There is no vaccine currently available for prevention of corona virus. Although scientist are trying there best to make a vaccine but it is difficult because of the continuous mutation of the virus. Right now, Weiner and his colleagues are working on vaccine which will work by teaching human immune system to recognize any virus an neutralize it. It is called DNA vaccine.
There is no vaccine currently available for corona virus, discovering a possible vaccine for the disease is only best possible way of preventing Corona Virus.
Treatment of Corona Virus:
Research Question: What is the effective treatment of Corona Virus patient?
There is no Vaccine currently available for prevention of corona virus. Corona virus is treated symptomatically, and drugs used for common cold are given. Antipyeritics, anti-virals with plenty of fluids are given for patients, for severe cases, treatment to preserve the vital organs is also given. Patients are put in an isolated department to prevent the spread.
Corona Virus is treated symptomatically and by giving plenty of fluids. There is no definitive treatment available till the vaccination is ready by the scientists in a year or two.
RESEARCH LIMITATIONS for Corona Pandemic Topics:
All these research can better take place if we do experimental study and proper data collection from the first infected person to all those infected along with the informations taken from the doctors about increase in severity if disease and possible outcomes and asking about the treatment option which they have seen, resulting in betterment of their patients.
Lack of access to the patients and facilities to do the experimental study is also a great problem. Although Western countries already have started experimental study on humans but still there is no authentic success till to date and it can take months to make vaccination ready for covid 19 patients.
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